HARVARD Referencing System
(adapted simplified version of the guide available at

A full list of references should be provided at the end of the text. The recommended format is an adapted Harvard system. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be present in the list of references. They may appear in the main text and in the footnotes. Abbreviations of Bulgarian and foreign journals should follow the standard published on the journal website.

Reference in text

  • one author/name (Insoll 2007)
  • two authors (Gurova, Nachev 2008)
  • multiple authors (Bonsall et al. 2010)
  • with direct quotation on a page (Nikolov 1996, 7)
  • multiple publications and authors – in chronological order (Perlès 1992; 2001; 2004; Rosen 1997, fig. 12; Chapman 2000)
  • in case of authors in Cyrillic script, they are listed first followed by authors in Roman script and in accordance with the rule explained in the paragraph above outlining multiple publications

Reference list

The references should be arranged alphabetically by the first author’s family name and by year of publication in case of multiple publications by the same author(s). In case of papers written in non-Roman script, if there is an English title in the summary, it may be used instead. If there is not such a summary, the author’s name and the paper/book title must be transliterated in Roman script; the original language of the cited reference should be noted in parentheses at the end of the paragraph, e.g. (in Bulgarian). For papers accepted to be published in Bulgarian, obligatory transliteration in parentheses is required after the original in Cyrillic script for all publications in the reference list.
Transliteration is performed according to the Transliteration Act and its Regulation. There are suitable online programs that can be used, such as

NB! Authors should spell their name as it was introduced and known in previous publications, even if the transliteration tools offer another option.

All publications with online access should contain DOI link (or URL address), as follows:

Brandl, M., Martinez, M., Hauzenberger, C., Filzmoser, P., Mehler, N. 2018. A Multi-technique analytical approach to sourcing Scandinavian flint : Provenance of ballast flint from the shipwreck “Leirvigen 1”, Norway. PLOS ONE 13.8: e0200647,

Frémondeau, D., Ottoni, C., Ivanova, S., Marinova, E., Spassov, N., Hristova, L., Konyovska, R., Van Neer, W., Lupianez, N. Gurova, M. 2020.  New mtDNA and Isotopic Evidence on Late Pleistocene Cave Bears in the Balkans: the Case-study of Magura Cave, NW Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 72.3, 461–478,

Examples of bibliographic description


Journal article

Higham, T., Chapman, J., Slavchev, V., Gaydarska, B., Honch, N., Yordanov, Y., Dimitrova, B. 2007. New perspectives on the Varna cemetery (Bulgaria) – AMS dates and social implications. Antiquity 81, 640–654.

Transliterated example

(From: Манолакакис, Л. 2002. Функцията на големите пластини от Варненския некропол. Археология 3, 5–17.)

Manolakakis, L. 2001. Funktsiyata na golemite plastini ot varnenskia nekropol. Arheologia 3, 5–17 (in Bulgarian).

In the reference list of paper in Bulgarian the publication should be cited as followed:

Манолакакис, Л. 2002. Функцията на големите пластини от Варненския некропол. Археология 3, 5–17. (Manolakakis, L. 2001. Funktsiyata na golemite plastini ot varnenskia nekropol. Arheologia 3, 5–17, in Bulgarian).

Example of publication having title and summary in Roman script.

Alexandrov, S., Dimitrov, Z., Danov, A., Cvetkov, I. 2020. Rescue excavations at site No. 13/1012 along the “Extension of the gas pipe-line system of Bulgartransgas” near Gramada, Vidin district. Archaeological Discoveries and Excavations in 2019. Sofia, 894–899 (in Bulgarian with English abstract)

Journal article with both volume and issue number

Wittaker, J. 2000. Alonia and Dhoukanes: The Ethnoarchaeology of Threshing in Cyprus. Near Eastern Archaeology 63.2, 62–69.

Gaydarska, В., Chapman, J., Angelova, I., Gurova, M., Yanev, S. 2004. Breaking, making and trading: the Omurtag Eneolithic Spondylus hoard. Archaeologia Bulgarica VIII.2, 11–35.

Series (author, year, title (series), place of publication: publishing house)

Popova, T. 1995. Plant Remains from Bulgarian Prehistory (7000-2000 BC). In Bailey, D., Panayotov, I. (eds) Prehistoric Bulgaria (Monographs in World Archaeology 22). Madison Wiskonsin: Prehistory Press, 193–205.

Transliterated example

Todorova H., Ivanov St., Vasilev V., Hopf M., Quitta H., Kohl G. 1975. Selishtnata mogila pri Golyamo Delchevo (Razkopki i prouchvaniya 5). Sofia: Balgarska Akademia na Naukite (in Bulgarian).

Books (author, year, title, place of publication: publishing house)

Book with one author

Bradley, R. 2000. An archaeology of natural places. London: Routledge.

Transliterated example

Todorova, H. 1986. Kameno-mednata epoha v Balgaria (peto hilyadoletie predi novata era). Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo (in Bulgarian).

Book with two authors

Chapman, J., Dolukhanov, P. 1997. Landscapes in Flux: Central and Eastern Europe in Antiquity. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Book with three or more authors

Lichardus, J., Fol. A., Getov, L., Echt, Fr., Katincharov, R., Iliev, I. 2000. Forschungen in der Mikroregion von Drama 1983-1999. Bonn: Dr. Rudolf Habelt GMBH.

Book/paper by same author in the same year

Chapman, J. 2000a. Fragmentation in archaeology: People, places and broken objects in the prehistory of South Eastern Europe. London: Routledge.

Chapman, J. 2000b. Tensions at funerals. Mortuary archaeology in later Hungarian Prehistory. Budapest: Archaeolingua.

Book with an editor

Guilaine, J. (ed.) 2003. Arts et symboles du Néolithique à la Protohistoire. Paris: Editions Errance.

Book with two/more editors

Todorova, H., Stefanovich, M., Ivanov, G. (eds) 2007. The Struma/Strimon River Valley in Prehistory. Proceedings of the International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus (In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul 2). Sofia: Gerda Henkel Stiftung.

Harvati, K., Roksandic, M. (eds) 2016. Paleoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia. Human Evolution and its Context. Dordrecht: Springer.

Сhapter in a book

Bonsall, C. 2008. The Mesolithic of the Iron Gates. In Bailey, G., Spikins, P. (eds) Mesolithic Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 238–279.

Lichardus-Itten, M., Demoule, J.-P., Pernicheva, L., Grębska-Kulova, M., Kulov, I. 2006. Kovačevo, an Early Neolithic site in South-West Bulgaria and its importance for Euro­pean Neolithization. In Gatsov, I., Schwarzberg, H. (eds) Aegean - Marmara - Black Sea: the Present State of research on the Early Neolithic. Langenweissbach: Beier & Beran, 83–94.

Books with an anonymous or unknown author

The University Encyclopedia 1988. London: Roydon.

Conference papers

Fol, V. 2008. The rock as a topos of faith. The interactive zone of the rock-cut monuments – from Urartu to Thrace. In Kostov, R. I, Gaydarska, B., Gurova, M. (eds) Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy. Proceedings of the International Conference, 29-30 October 2008 Sofia. Sofia: St. Ivan Rilski, 153–162.


Nachev, I. 1984. Composition and Origin of Siliceous Rocks from deposit Izbegly (Plovdiv Dostrict). In III Seminar on Petroarchaeology. Plovdiv 27-30 of August, 1984, Bulgaria. Plovdiv: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 45–54.

Online journal papers

Nielsen, S. 2017. Evidence of excellence: re-assessing the status of Neolithic long-blades in Scandinavia. Bulgarian e-Journal of Archaeology, 7.1, 117–132. Available:

World Wide Web page (date accessed)

Young, C. 2001. English Heritage position statement on the Valletta Convention, [Online], Available: (24.08.2001).

NC Model: North Carolina GIS Archaeological Predictive Model Project. (01.01.2011).