Late Neolithic Kachitsa (central northern Bulgaria): animal bones as raw material in the settlement’s economy




Animal bones, bone technology, economy, Late Neolithic, central northern Bulgaria


The importance of animal bone in prehistory was substantial as it was one of the main raw materials for producing a wide range of objects intended for various activities. This study presents the processed animal bones from the Late Neolithic settlement in the Kachitsa locality in Veliko Tarnovo. The Late Neolithic collection (Kachitsa A-B phase; Kachitsa B phase) consists of 70 artefacts made of bones, antlers and teeth. The objects were classified according to their morphological and technological characteristics into several groups, further divided into types, subtypes and variations. There are seven groups: pointed tools (n=21), cutting tools (n=5), burnishing tools (n=14), punching tools (n=5), multitools (n=1), decorative objects (n=19) and undefined objects (n=5). Use-wear traces show that the bone tools were used mainly for the processing of animal skins and plant products. The worked bone collection is dominated by domestic animals, mainly from large ruminant as cattle (Bos taurus), but hard animal tissue of medium sized species (sheep, goat, roe deer) and large wild animals (red deer) were also used. Preferred bones were the metapodia and the ribs, which are among the most suited for bone industry. The distribution of the types, the used raw materials, and the manufacturing techniques in the various phases of Kachitsa remain almost unchanged, with few exceptions. This trend demonstrates the role of strict tradition and the gradual introduction of some innovations in the bone industry of the settlement.


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How to Cite

Markova, H. (2023) “Late Neolithic Kachitsa (central northern Bulgaria): animal bones as raw material in the settlement’s economy”, Bulgarian e-Journal of Archaeology | Българско е-Списание за Археология, 13(1), pp. 1–24. doi: 10.57573/be-ja.13.1-24.