Bulgarian e-Journal of Archaeology Supplements | Българско е-Списание за Археология Supplementa https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements <p>Series Bulgarian e-Journal of Archaeology Supplements / Поредица Българско е-Списание за Археология Supplementa</p> en-US editor@be-ja.org (Maria Gurova) givanov@be-ja.org (Georgi Ivanov) Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Chalcolithic pottery from Aktopraklık Höyük in Northwestern Anatolia https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/192 <p>Aktopraklık is situated 25 km west of Bursa and located on one of the eastern terraces of Lake Ulubat. Having started in the late 7th millenium, a process has been traced uninterruptedly for a period of nearly one thousand years. In Aktopraklık, the Neolithic and Chalcolithic layers have been detected at three different mound formations which we have labelled as A, B and C. In Area B, the remnants of a settlement, which are characterised with the wattle and daub structures and which date to the Early Chalcolithic Era (around 5800–5700 BC), have been detected. Limited area of this layer has been unearthed; thus, our knowledge about this phase’s settlement plan is limited, but it is clear that this layer shows close similarities with Ilıpınar VII in terms of its architectural technique. This paper presents technological and typological concept of this phase’s pottery assemblage. Examining the technological and typological concept of the pottery assemblage of this phase has an importance for understanding the meaning of pottery production and its usage primarily in Aktopraklık scale and then in the region during that period. Archaeometric analysis on the pottery has not been carried out. The pottery assemblage of this layer is divided into groups. Additives, firing conditions and surface colours are taken into consideration during this process, and a typological concept is functionally classified. Pottery assemblage of this layer shows similarities with other settlements that are not only from Northwest Anatolia, but also from other regions in Anatolia and East Thrace. This article aims to contribute to the understanding of this period of time in Aktopraklık scale by evaluating and comparing pottery assemblage from wattle and daub layer according to its material-technique and typological concept.</p> Serap Ala Çelik Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/192 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Top of the pots. Late Neolithic ceramic lids from North Central Bulgaria https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/193 <p>Lids are a seldom discovered type of Neolithic vessels, which explains the lack of analyses of this category of ceramic assemblage. This study includes 41 unpublished fragments found at the settlements Samovodene, Kachitsa, Hotnitsa-Kashlata, Hotnitsa-Kaya bunar, situated in the Yantra river valley, as well as Koprivets which is located in the Rusenski Lom basin. They reveal certain changes in typology and decoration throughout the entire Late Neolithic period (according to the Bulgarian chronological system – 5400/5300-5000/4900 BC), namely the Hotnitsa and Dudeşti cultures in the Lower Danube region, plus some Early Vădastra elements. The absence of any Boian-Bolentineanu traces is not surprising, considering its vague specifics and even questionable existence. <br>Most of the forms described come from Samovodene (34 pieces), as it is one of the few extensively excavated sites. The majority have cylindrical (with straight or bulging walls) and slightly conical lids with planar top surfaces. The few pieces from Kachitsa, the sites in the vicinity of Hotnitsa and the single from Koprivets show different shapes, characteristic of the very end of the period. Various ornamentations are encrusted with white or, at rare occasions, red, pastes. Moreover, due to the diverse decorations, every single fragment included has its own specific appearance. The lids from North Central Bulgaria, as well as parts of the ceramic assemblage, find their closest parallels in the Dudeşti and Vădastra material from the Western Muntenia and Eastern Oltenia regions in Southern Romania.</p> Ivan Suvandzhiev Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/193 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Identifying burnt structures in the Rousse Tell settlement: a new perspective to the old data https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/194 <p>The complexes of burnt houses are one of the fundamentals for studying the material culture of a certain prehistoric community. Even though they are rarely presented in publications, their identification and detailed documentation is of great significance.<br>The subject of this research are the burnt structures excavated during 1986-1988 campaign in the Rousse tell settlement. Since it was entirely explored during several campaigns, directed by different archaeologists, the information about certain complexes is unequal. Even though houses have been distinguished during this campaign, they do not correspond to the information from the field diaries and stratigraphic profile. The main goal is burnt structures that have been observed on the terrain but never been distinguished as complexes to be re-identified. Bases of the new approach are the field diaries providing data about presence of burnt destructions on a certain spot; and the secondary burnt vessels with same coordinates. As a result, twenty structures with various dimensions and thickness were identified which deliver many possibilities for further analyses.</p> Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/194 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Povelyanovo – a site of the Varna culture https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/195 <p>This paper focuses on the Povelyanovo site, which was found during construction works in April 1970. It is located on the northwestern shore of the Beloslav Lake and geographically falls into the area of Varna Culture. The site wasn`t examined by archaeological excavations and the only known material comes from the dredging works. This makes the material non-stratified, without any data usable for stratigraphic analysis.<br>There is only one known short notice about the site, with no material published. A problem occurs with the demarcation of the materials, because except for the pottery, the tools can be dated back to either Late Eneolithic or Early Bronze Age, because of their close technological characteristics. The ceramics were stored in the collection of Varna Archaeological Museum and have not been handled or published until now. The pottery is highly fragmented and in a very poor condition due to the long stay in the lake waters. Still, its amount allows technological, typological and ornamentation analyses, which show full similarity with the known pottery of the other Eneolithic sites from the Varna lakes area. According to given parallels, the chronological position of Povelyanovo settlement could be II phase of the Varna Culture, with a possibility of existence in phase III. There are some examples, whose features could define them in earlier stage of the development of the Culture, but for now it is dangerous to conclude that the settlement was inhabited during phase I.</p> Stanimir Parvanov Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/195 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Examples of anthropomorphic figurines from the Chalcolithic settlement mound at Pietrele (Romania) https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/196 <p>This paper is detailing some of the most recent observations on the anthropomorphic plastic discovered over the last 15 years, during the excavation of the Chalcolithic settlement mound at Pietrele (Romania). Firstly, a clay statuette showing evidently morphological features close to the ones of the Cucuteni-Tripolje culture is presented and the inquiry of whether or not it should be regarded as an “import” is forwarded. In addition, a similar assumption is proposed for a marble statuette found in 2007 at the same site. Finally, those stratigraphic observations which suggest the first occurrences of figurines made of bone as well as the presumed origin of clay statuettes with a so-called swollen belly are discussed.</p> Michael Müller Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/196 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Offsite studies at Pietrele, Măgura Gorgana: flat settlement formation around a Copper Age tell site in the Lower Danube https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/197 <p>The Lower Danube region provides an opportunity to study the spatial organization of Copper Age tell settlements. In this short paper, we will try to explore the areas outside the tell site itself, and provide new evidence for the settlement organization in the outer settlement area. Essentially, the new data generated by geophysical prospection, which was later confirmed by trench excavations, brought into discussion the presence, variety and the character of outer settlement features encountered in the immediate environment of a Gumelnița tell in Pietrele, circa 4600/4550 to 4300/4250 BC.<br>The exploration of the flat site might have ramifications for how we think human interactions and networks took shape in the vicinity of Copper Age tell settlements. In order to approach these issues, the first part of the paper deals with the definitions and problems, the second and the third part deal with the contexts themselves as uncovered in two trenches in the outer settlement. The final part provides a brief outlook and puts the ramifications of the features discussed into a broader perspective.</p> Sven Brummack, Mehmet Karaucak Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/197 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Problems аnd opportunities of statistical аnalysis of the Chalcolithic house architecture in Northeastern Bulgaria https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/198 <p>The aim of this study is to demonstrate a small part of the opportunities of statistical methods and software for the Chalcolithic dwellings’ architecture. It represents the problems which limit this kind of research. This study utilizes the statistical approach to analyze the Chalcolithic dwellings in Northeastern Bulgaria. The area provides great opportunities. It includes entirely excavated Chalcolithic settlements or ones with completely excavated building layers – Vinitsa, Golyamo Delchevo, Ovcharovo, Omurtag, Polyanitsa, Radingrad and Targovishte. A total of 628 Chalcolithic buildings have been analyzed. The information has been systemized and entered into an electronic table. It has been statistically processed via the statistical software. As a result, a number of conclusions have been drawn. They reflect the chronological dependencies, the exposure, the shape and the size of the dwellings, their inner plan and arrangement.</p> Anton Atanasov Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/198 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The spinning process in the Central Balkans and the Rila-Rhodopes area in the context of the social and economic transformations during the final Chalcolithic https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/199 <p>The Final Chalcolithic Age in the Central Balkans and the Rila-Rhodopes area is characterized by growth in the number of the mountainous settlements. This process has been a consequence of the so-called rapid climate changes in the end of the fifth millennium BC that affected negatively the way of life in the plain lands of the Balkans. The bearers of the Krivodol–Salcuţa–Bubani culture complex continued their typical way of life in the mountainous areas of the Balkans, but with a number of changes in their material culture which were mainly provoked by the intensive interactions between the Aegean, the Balkans and the Middle Danube. One of the main evidence for the intense contacts between the Krivodol–Salcuţa–Bubani area and the Southern Balkans is the growth in quantity of the spindle whorls and the appearance of a new type – the so-called “short conical” spindle whorls, in both areas. This indicates the increment of spinning’s economic importance and changes in the spinning technique in the whole wide area. The aim of this article is to establish the nature of those changes.<br>In comparison to most of the other Late Chalcolithic spindle whorls the “short conical” can be considered small and light. Such spindle whorls are suitable for spinning of short fiber raw materials – goat hair, wool. <br>The increment of spinning’s economic importance and the use of “short conical” spindle whorls are also characteristic features for the mobile stockbreeding Chernavoda I culture. The existence of mobile pastoral groups in the Central Balkan Final Chalcolithic cultures had been suggested long ago. So, it is reasonable to presume that the mobile stockbreeding model of those groups led to intensive use of animal fibers in their textile production.</p> Ivan Kotsov Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/199 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Comparing different models of complex settlements in Western Anatolia and Southeast Europe in the 3rd millennium BC: the question of urbanization https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/200 <p>In the course of the 3<sup>rd</sup> millennium BC a higher social class differentiated itself for the first time in Western Anatolia and the Aegean islands from the rest of the society through the medium of settlement planning and the systematic use of personal luxury goods. Monumental architecture, specialized craftsmanship, administrative practices, regular caravan routes, and a wide range of trade goods were among the major innovations, which can be regarded as indications of an urbanization process in those regions, particularly during the second half of the 3<sup>rd</sup> millennium BC. While Western Anatolia and the Aegean islands underwent such an urbanization process, settlement patterns in the Balkan Peninsula remained unaffected from those developments. Some ideological elements, however, seem to have reached at least as far as the Thracian Plain in north-western direction, implying a connection between Aegeo-Anatolia and the Balkans, based upon individual groups rather than on regular caravan routes. Thus, the present paper deals with the similarities, as well as the differences of Western Anatolia, the Aegean islands, Thrace, and Western Balkans, regarding social patterns displayed on architecture, settlement layout, and personal wealth, with a special focus on the question of urbanization. </p> Nihan Naiboğlu Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/200 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Amber in the Mycenaean world and in the Balkan Peninsula during the 2nd millennium BC: perspectives of an imported material https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/201 <p>This paper focuses on amber finds in the Balkan area during the 2<sup>nd</sup> millennium BC. Amber beads reached initially Mycenaean sites in the 17<sup>th</sup> –16<sup>th</sup> c. BC. By the end of the 13<sup>th</sup> c. BC the material’s geographical distribution expanded significantly in the Peninsula, from Western Balkans and Greece to Bulgaria and Romania. Most beads dated to these centuries are of flattened globular and discoid shapes. There had been greater concentrations of the fossilized resin buried in a few tombs during the initial appearance period in Greece; in contrast to this, fewer amber beads have been discovered, in more sites though, in later phases – these beads are found predominantly again in burial context. The 12<sup>th</sup> c. BC threshold marks a significant differentiation as far as amber distribution and shapes are concerned related probably to the political situation of the period, the fall of the Mycenaean Palaces and the active role of the Italic populations in amber’s circulation. Amber beads are used for pendants, necklaces, belts or they are combined with other materials, eg. gemstones, cloths, metal artefacts. Amber seems to have assumed a multiple role in the Balkan communities as burial good, ritual artefact or material employed in societal manipulation, although contextual analysis is necessary in order to specify its functions at any site or in any community separately. During the last decades research has gained a new momentum encompassing the Northern Balkan countries into its consideration, even alongside the Mycenaean World; therefore, amber perspectives can be studied nowadays more elaborately. </p> Theodoros Zygouris Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/201 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Ofrynio Toumba, an example of habitation in Eastern Macedonia (Northern Greece) in the Late Bronze Age https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/202 <p>Ofrynio Toumba is a typical Late Bronze Age (1600-1100 BC) site located 60 km west of the city of Kavala and 2 km southeast of the modern village of Ofrynio in the Municipality of Pangaion, in Northern Greece. The geographical position of the tell on the west bank of the Strymon river, near the coastline of Orphanos bay and south of the metalliferous Mount Pangaion, emphasizes its geostrategic role and attests to its character as an important prehistoric settlement. Analogous sites east of the Strymon river are relatively rare unlike to what happens in central Macedonia, the valley of Axios, around the Thermaicos gulf, the Langadas basin and Chalkidike. <br>The systematic research in the field began in 2012 and continues to this day, under the supervision of the Ephorate of Antiquities of Kavala-Thasos and is supported financially by the Municipality of Pangaion and the INSTAP foundation (Institute of Aegean Prehistory). Excavation has already revealed important features, such as architectural remains, characteristic pottery of the Late Bronze Age, small artifacts mainly connected to the household equipment and a rich zooarchaeological material. The architectural remains (enclosure-apsidal building) unearthed till now, in the upper archaeological layer, are dated in the last period of the Late Bronze Age (LH IIIC/1200-1100 BC), according to the characteristic pottery. <br>Ofrynio Toumba will allow an opportunity to study a settlement of the Late Bronze Age in the coastal area of Eastern Macedonia, decisively contributing to the enrichment of the archaeological record of the area.</p> Ioannis Soukantos, Dimitria Malamidou Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/202 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Plant food remains from prehistoric Greece: first insights from Archondiko https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/203 <p>Archondiko is a tell settlement in central Macedonia with habitation dating to the Early and Late Bronze Age (Table 1). Archaeobotanical investigation of the site has yielded rich assemblages of charred plant remains. This paper presents results of the archaeobotanical analysis of the Late Bronze Age phase. About 80000 charred remains have been analyzed from two destruction layers. Crop species, cereals and pulses, are the most abundant finds. These crops were found stored, probably inside two houses. Cereal remains dominate the assemblages, indicating their significance in human diet. These finds, in combination with previous pilot studies on Early Bronze Age cereal plant food remains from Archondiko, form the basis for future research on culinary practices involving plant ingredients.</p> Chryssi Petridou Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/203 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Intra-settlement use of space in Late Bronze Age mainland Greece: a preliminary archaeobotanical study on crop storage and refuse disposal strategies in the 2nd millennium BC https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/204 <p>Preliminary archaeobotanical data are used to explore crop storage and refuse disposal strategies in four LBA settlements of mainland Greece, attempting to reconstruct intra-settlement use of space in the of 2<sup>nd</sup> mil. BC Aegean. Two taphonomic factors are especially considered, sampling strategy and destruction by fire. Results show that both greatly affect the archaeobotanical visibility of storage and refuse. Though further analysis is needed, there is evidence showing short-term crop storage in the palace of Ayios Vassileios, at least circumstantially and possibly intended for ceremonial consumption, and possibly at Mitrou. At Kynos, another simple Mycenaean settlement, long-term storage was practiced at a house-hold level reminiscent at different respects patterns evidenced in the North. Thessaloniki Toumba seems rather dirty, with refuse deposited indiscriminately within settlement space and its composition strikingly different compared to the southern Mycenaean settlements, palatial or not, potentially reflecting regional level differences in refuse disposal strategies.</p> Angeliki Karathanou Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/204 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Тhe crescent-shaped and semi-circular pectorals from Тhrace, 5th century ВС: origin and distribution https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/205 <p>This study is focused on the origin, development and distribution of the crescent-shaped and semicircular form of pectorals, widely spread on the territory of Asia Minor, ancient Thrace, Scythia and single examples from ancient Macedonia and Etruria.<br>The crescent-shaped pectorals on the territory of Thrace are presented only of two gold examplе – Golyamata mound, from the necropolis of Duvanli, Plovdiv region and Yakimova mound, near the village Krushare, Sliven, from the middle of the 5<sup>th</sup> c. BC. Later this form passes or is replaced by the semicircular pectorals, that are found in the graves from Bashova mound, from the necropolis of Duvanli, burial mound near the village Dalboki, Stara Zagora and Tumulus no. 1, near Chernozem, Kaloyanovo, from the second half or the end of the 5<sup>th</sup> c. BC. These small groups of crescent-shaped and semicircular pectorals are found in graves together with weaponry (probably graves of warriors) in the Odrysian territories and can be defined as a part of ceremonial armor in Thrace. The similarities in their forms suggest that they are influenced by a common prototype. Iv. Venedikov is the first one that traces possible influences and connections between Thracian pectorals and that of Asia Minor.<br>The origin and development of crescent-shaped pectorals is very well attested in different parts of Asia Minor. They are made of gold, silver or bronze plates. The main part of crescent-shaped or semicircular pectorals comes from the territory of Urartu, dated in 8<sup>th</sup> –7<sup>th</sup> c. BC. At the same time are dated the pectorals from the territory of Etruria, which are probably influenced by some eastern motifs. Pectorals from Assyria are rare, and according to the researches, they may be also associated with the culture of Urartu. Probably the crescent-shaped pectorals are accepted in the territory of Scythia no later than the second half of the 7th c. BC, due to some earlier contacts with different parts of Asia Minor, and are used to the 4<sup>th</sup> c. BC. On the territory of ancient Macedonia there is only one example of crescent-shaped or semicircular form – the gold pectoral from Trebenishte, from the second half of 6<sup>th</sup> c. BC. </p> Desislava Lyubenova Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/205 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Hellenistic bronze pitcher from Tazha and some notes on the Early Hellenistic toreutics https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/206 <p>The article examines a chance find pitcher, discovered in 1934 in the region of nowadays village of Tazha, Kazanlak municipality (probably from destroyed burial mound). The item is clearly of local manufacture and most fascinating – it is made from copper alloy. Although heavily damaged, from 1 to 7 equal ornaments from three different types are preserved, positioned in horizontal rows. They are all embossed, worked in repoussé technique using a stamp, outlined, and several details are added with free hand afterwards. On the lowest row there is a single image of fish and just above it there are seven birds, probably ducks. Most interesting are the partly preserved bull heads, ornaments known from many metalworking tools, especially in Northwestern Bulgaria, but attested on much fewer Thracian metal vases.<br>This study aims to propose a clear date for the pitcher and determine its role in Hellenistic Thrace. With the archaeological context lost, a formal-typological analysis is conducted, which points to a date in the late 4<sup>th</sup> or the first half of 3<sup>rd</sup> c. BC. <br>With the closest geographical and chronological parallel being with another chance find – a silver pectoral from somewhere in Stara Zagora region, a question stands for the localization of workshop or group of closely related workshops (using similar tools), working on different types of items and materials, but with similar decoration. This atelier is probably located in Seuthopolis or in its vicinity, where, during the political upsurge during the Early Hellenistic period, probably a local bronze workshop for vases was in operation.</p> Vladislav Zhivkov Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/206 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Typology and chronology of red-slip ware from the Roman ceramics centre near Karavelovo village, Shumen region, North Bulgaria https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/207 <p>The manufacturing complex is located in the east part of the Roman province of Lower Moesia. The site near the village of Karavelovo, Shumen region was partially studied in the 1970s. So far the registered structures and the materials provided by the excavations in the ceramic centre were known only by brief information in the annual archaeological reports and by a preliminary report, which makes them almost unknown to the researchers. The purpose of this study is to clarify the chronology of the red-slip production of the centre near Karavelovo. It becomes clear from the publications on the issue that the kilns worked in the period from the 2<sup>nd</sup> to the 4<sup>th</sup> c. but because of absence of analysis on the ceramic material, the interpretations on the chronology of the ceramic production in the discussed centre sound unconvincingly. The analysis offered here points explicitly at the period from the end of the 2nd or the very beginning of the 3rd c. until the middle of the same century. Current and future researches in the area would expand significantly our knowledge of the production and use of the red-slip ware in the province of Lower Moesia.</p> Stiliyan Ivanov Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/207 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The persistence of the limes and the condition of the defensive system as reflections of the general collapse of the state system in the Early Byzantine Balkans https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/208 <p>This study is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of the early Byzantine limes in the northern Balkan region and its possible connection to stability and settlement development in the hinterland. Although this topic has been widely discussed in the past by a number of scholars, reconsideration of some theses and ideas, seen through the results of recent archaeological excavations, is needed. We believe that a detailed examination of the problems associated with existence, structure, permeability and security of the border will contribute greatly to asking the right questions about the overall fall and disintegration of the early Byzantine system of government and administration. Additionally, questions about the evident cultural decline are considered. Most of the issues concerning the limes are connected with the strategic reorganization of the defense of the Balkans. This is made for the better security of the local communities during their struggle for survival in a time of natural disasters, depopulation, constant barbarian raids and limited settlement of a foreign population. In the second half of the sixth and the seventh centuries, almost everything came down to self-sufficiency and survival through decentralization and local management of resources, production, and defense. Byzantium only formally retained authority over a part of the Balkan provinces, primarily through a number of strategic strongholds, mostly located offshore, on the islands and rarely inland. Only there the last remains of the urban elite and the military aristocracy survived. Purely formal authority over a large part of the territories conquered during Justinian`s reign indicates an economic downturn, complete disintegration of the administrative system and a collapse of the military and administrative organization in a great part of the Balkans. All the problems to be considered will be seen through the prism of the complex cultural, historical and socioeconomic framework of the period.</p> Hristijan Talevski Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/208 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Bulgars, Slavs, Avars. About the early medieval cemeteries in Northwestern Bulgaria and the people who used them https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/209 <p>The main subject of the research are a group of necropolises in modern day Northwestern Bulgaria, widely dated from the end of 8th to the beginning of 11<sup>th</sup> c. AD and defined as “biritual, with cremations and inhumations in Christian way”. A thorough analysis of all element of the ritual is made, which leads to identification of some references between the burials ritual and the grave inventory. This helps for a definition of two horizons of inhumations – a pagan one, until the middle of 9<sup>th</sup> c. and Christian one, from the end of 9th and the beginning of 10<sup>th</sup> c. The sites in the group are collated with the protobulgarian biritual necropolises on the Lower Danube, the slavic cemeteries with cremation, the Christian necropolises and the Avar ones on the Middle Danube, the latter having considerable similarities with Dolni Lukovit – Galiche. A suggestion is made, that the population, that left the graves from type A in the sites, is influenced by the traditions of Avar Khaganate, or even it contains groups of people, coming from northwest. Among the most important conclusions, except the presence of early and late burials, is also the truly intriguing, but quite realistic assumption, that these necropolises, although pagan, continue to function after the Christianization. </p> Vladimir Staykov Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/209 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Adornments from the necropolis of Church № 2 of Kaliakra https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/210 <p>This paper offers a detailed description and analisys of the adornments found on the territory of a necropolis located around church № 2 in the inner city of Kaliakra. Along with other findings in the graves, reburiels and around them (probably from a disturbed graves) 26 applications, 65 earrings, 8 earflaps, 11 rings and 1 pendant were found. The applications for tiaras are 2 types. The earrings are 9 types. The largest type are simple hoops, which could be explained with their cost, fashion tendencies or semantic value. The earflaps are divided into 3 types, one of which has 2 variants. The pendant is just one. The rings are 4 types with variants. The systematization also shows that the preferred material was silver, followed by bronze and copper. This observation along with different types of jewelry and the quality of workmanship provide information about the development of the jewellery industry. The wide diversity is an indication that the necropolis was used by people of different social status. Also the jewelry discovered in the necropolis of church № 2 are widespread not only in Bulgaria, but in many places on the Balkans and in the Eastern Europe. The chronology of findings originating from graves is within the XII-XIV c. From the rings found outside the graves there is one typical for the period from the end of IX to XI c., and three from the XV c. This implies continuous habitation of this location.</p> Gabriela Raikova Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/210 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Arab-Byzantine seafaring in the Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean: the portrait of Leo of Tripoli and Damian of Tyre through primary sources https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/211 <p>This paper aims at a re-examination of primary source material in order to unveil a clearer and more comprehensive framework concerning the Arab-Byzantine seafaring and warfare in the Medieval Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Thessaloniki the largest Balkan city of the Byzantine Empire. Leo of Tripoli and Damian of Tyre, two well-educated and experts in naval tactics converted from Christianity to Islam and initiated massive campaigns – and not piratical assaults – in the Balkans due to the huge antagonism for thalassocracy in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study I argue that the Arabs as well as the Byzantines were acting with fairly lawful practices during their campaigns and the Muslim fleet has been on an equal footing with the Byzantine fleet only after the 3<sup>rd</sup>–4<sup>th</sup> AH (9<sup>th</sup>–10<sup>th</sup> AD) centuries. It is thus impossible to construe historical events related to the Arab-Byzantine seafaring without researching and analyzing Arabic sources.</p> Stavros Panayiotou Copyright (c) 0 https://be-ja.org/index.php/supplements/article/view/211 Tue, 09 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0300