The most important issue that every secondary school Bulgarian pupil learns after his/her first geography and history lessons is the significance of the particular location of the modern Bulgarian State. All the climaxes and nadirs in Bulgarian history have been related to what we now call the geographical characteristics of the South Balkans (Pounds 1969). Bulgaria – even when the state did not bear this name- has always been on the threshold of Asia and on the threshold of Europe (Fig. 1.1.1). What is not surprising, though, is the abundance of later prehistoric monuments covering the territory South of the Danube and West of the Black Sea up to the Aegean and Adriatic coasts. Within the boundaries of present-day Bulgaria, there are 70,000 archaeological sites, dating from the Middle Palaeolithic up to Late Mediaeval times. The dry language of statistics – 556 tells, 492 flat sites, 75 cemeteries and numerous barrows – could be read as an intensive, dynamic human occupation that intensified from 7000 CAL BC onwards. The earliest evidence for the settlement of the Upper Thracian Plain in South Bulgaria dates to the Early Neolithic (6000 – 5000 CAL BC: Boyadziev 1995. The South East part of this valley forms the study area in this thesis.