Archaeological excavations of the Early Iron Age site of Kalakača in northern Serbia revealed the presence of numerous pit-features and traces of several possible above-ground structures. A number of pits were interpreted as storage features. Moreover, the charred plant remains in some of them were taken as an evidence of the function of the pits as crop stores/granaries. Archaeobotanical analysis confirmed the presence of a range of crops in the pits; however, the circumstances in which the charred crop remains were found strongly suggest that there is no direct connection between the plant material and the pit-features. No traces of in situ burning were detected in the excavated pits, demonstrating that the charring of plants happened outside. The use of charred plant remains as evidence for the storage of crops in the Kalakača pits can thus be dismissed. The plant material was perhaps charred within the surface structures. The analysis of the type of plant parts re-deposited in the pits reveals the presence of crop products – chiefly millet grain (most likely semi-cleaned) and some barley grain; and crop processing by-products – wheat and barley chaff. Millet grain may have originated from millet stores; cereal chaff may have arrived in the pits as daub temper or as crop processing residue discarded in fire.
Botanical remains from sanctuaries and necropolises provide valuable information about ancient religious practices. The current paper discusses old and new archaeobotanical data from Bulgaria and the use of plants in ritual context from Antiquity. The time span of the 44 considered sites (sanctuaries and necropolises) is between the 6th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Most of the sanctuaries in Bulgaria, where archaeobotanical remains have been studied, date to the Bronze and Iron Ages, and a large proportion represents the so called “pit fields”. Information concerning later periods is almost completely lacking. Some evidence on plant offerings is available from the necropolises of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Although the archaeobotanical data from these sites are quite scarce, their increasing number allows the observation of some common tendencies. Cereals and pulses are most commonly identified at sanctuaries, while fruits are typical remains in the necropolises. Very often imported species (like stone pine, pistachio and olive) are found which testifies to existing contacts with adjacent regions (mainly the Mediterranean area and North Africa).
The paper presents the ICP-AES analysis of thirty-three artifacts made of copper alloys (tin bronze, lead bronze and brass) – adornments, vessels, weapons and several plates, strips and sticks gathered in the category “others”. They are found in southeastern Bulgaria and dated between the 8th and the 3rd century BC. The trend for targeted selection of alloys according to the way of working and the function of items are discussed, as well as some features of technology. The composition of all samples is compared with cluster analysis. The clusters and the data for local production of some artifacts like jewels, helmets, horse-harness appliqués etc. admit the presumption that part of bronze vessels found in ancient Thrace could be local as well.
The application of archaeomagnetic method as a dating tool in archaeology has intensified considerably in the last few years. The successful use of archaeomagnetic methodology depends on different factors and many efforts have been made for their clarification. Sampling is the first stage of each archaeomagnetic study. The careful selection and accurate orientation of the collected materials in the field are crucial for the obtained archaeomagnetic results. That is why detailed description of the fieldwork techniques used in Palaeomagnetic laboratory in Sofia is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different baked clay types of materials are summarized.
The late roman fortress Sexaginta Prista is situated on the right bank of Danube River beneath the level of the modern city of Ruse. In 2015 for about three months (the period March-May) on that territory over an area of 170 m2 were conducted rescue archaeological excavations. As a result part of the eastern wall, one U-shaped tower, the north side of the fortress gate, edifice adjoined to the wall and 40 pits were unearthed. During the research 226 coins from the 5th BC to 20th century were found whose analysis is the topic of this article.