The article present the first stage of the statistical analysis of the pottery from the ‘Palace centre-east’ site in Pliska. The pottery has been grouped according to technological and functional properties in the following categories: pottery made on slow wheel (pots and bowls), grey pottery (pots and bowls), pottery made on fast wheel (pots, bowls, jars, dishes), amphora-like pitchers (made of light clay or of red clay and pitchers with red slip), amphorae, glazed ware and other categories (Table 1). The database consists of 5648 fragments of household ware found in an area of 200 m2 (Fig.2). The complex analysis of the investigated sector has allowed the determination of three stratigraphic horizons in the post-capital period of Pliska: horizon I (first half of the 10th century AD till the 70s of the same century); horizon II (70s of the 10th century AD till the 30s of the 11th century AD); horizon III (30s-40s of the 11th century AD till 60s of the same century). Various ratios between the different types of pottery are analyzed and presented in different diagrams. The ratio between the three functional groups of pottery – coarse ware, fine ware and storage/transport ware- is 71%:24%:5%. The assessment of the degree of fragmentation was made by the analysis of characteristic fragments (rims and bases). The total number of vessels in the three horizons is different – 12%:57%:31%. Such percentage ratio suggests certain demographic dynamics, according to which the most significant population growth is between the end of the 10th century AD and the first third of the 11th century AD. The detailed analysis of the structure of the pottery assemblage in the post-capital period in Pliska allows inferences to be made not only about the nature of the ceramic production but also serves as a basis for clarification of the social profile of the population, its cultural characteristics and the overall social functioning in the post-capital period of Pliska.
Two dome ovens from the archaeological complex of Pliska Palace, North-Eastern Bulgaria, were sampled and studied using archaeomagnetic method. These two ovens are well dated archaeologically, and their archaeomagnetic results will elucidate better the sought geomagnetic field variations for the given time period. On the other hand, we have the possibility to demonstrate the applicability of the archaeomagnetic method for dating purposes. Detailed rock-magnetic analyses were performed in order to establish the magnetic properties of the collected materials (stability of carried remanence, type of dominant magnetic minerals, domain state of magnetic particles and degrees of mineralogical transformations during heating). In general, the investigated materials are suitable for archaeomagnetic determination. The applied experiments show that they have not been heated to temperatures over 460?C as the temperature of heating in oven No2 was probably slightly higher in comparison to that in oven No1. Taking into account the determined mean values for the geomagnetic field elements, it is obvious that both ovens have been used in the past within two different time periods. The mean declination of oven No1 is more than 20 degrees lower than the declination of oven No2. Differences between the two other geomagnetic field parameters, inclination and intensity, are less pronounced: 5 degrees for inclination and 3 µT for intensity. An archaeomagnetic dating was done on the basis of Bulgarian reference curves from 2013. There is a very good agreement between the determined archaeomagnetic dating intervals (894 – 993) AD (for oven No1) and (1001 – 1075) AD (for oven No2), and the archaeological assumptions. These results confirm the importance of the archaeomagnetic method in archaeology as a reliable dating tool.
An interesting object made of lead was found during the archaeological investigations in the summer of 2013 in the archaeological site of Dobelt, part of Archaeological reserve Deultum – Debelt. It has cylindrical shape and its bottom has been broken in antiquity.
There are traces on the edge of the object suggesting an iron application or a handle. In its current condition the object weights 877 gr. Two imprints from the obverse of Emperor Antoninus Pius’s coins (138-161) are preserved on the surface of the cylinder. According to one of the available analogies, it was considered the that imprints were made of coins struck in 160-161, during the last years of the Emperor’s rule. The object can be interpreted as a standard for weight measures. It weighs two or more Roman pounds. A similar object has never been previously found at the territory of Bulgaria.
Foundations of geo-archaeology
Book review: В. Зайков, Ан. Юминов, Ел. Зайкова, Ал. Таиров, Основы Геоархеологии. Челябинск: Южно-Уралский Государственный Университет города Миас, 2011
On the precious metals, ores and gold of the southern Ural
Book review: В. Зайков, Ал. Таиров, Ел. Зайкова, В. Котляров, Л. Яблонский, Благородные Металлы в Рудах и Древних Золотых Изделиях Южного Урала. Екатерененбург: Уралское отделение Российской Академии наук, 2012
Architecture and Archaeology Book review: М. Русева, Методика за научно изследване на тракийската архитектура. Анализи, тълкуване, символика, София, 2013, 182 p.